Micromelalopha troglodyta (Graeser) has been one of the most serious pests on poplars in China. We used Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing to construct an antennal transcriptome and identify olfactory-related genes. In total, 142 transcripts were identifed, including 74 odorant receptors (ORs), 32 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 13 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 20 ionotropic receptors (IRs), and 3 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). The genetic relationships were obtained by the phylogenetic tree, and the tissue-specifc expression of important olfactory-related genes was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT–PCR). The results showed that most of these genes are abundantly expressed in the antennae and head. In most insects, olfaction plays a key role in foraging, host localization, and searching for mates. Our research lays the foundation for future research on the molecular mechanism of the olfactory system in M. troglodyta. In addition, this study provides a theoretical basis for exploring the relationship between M. troglodyta and their host plants, and for the biological control of M. troglodyta using olfactory receptor as targets.